Connect with us

FAQ - Advanced Bathroom Queries

How to Make Toilet Flush Stronger



An image that showcases a close-up of a toilet handle being firmly pressed down, while a rush of swirling water cascades forcefully into the bowl, demonstrating the steps to achieve a powerful toilet flush

Ever wondered why your toilet flush isn’t as strong as it used to be? Well, fear not! I’m here to help you make your toilet flush stronger and more efficient.

In this article, I will share my knowledge and expertise on how to identify and fix common flushing issues, clean and maintain the toilet tank, and even upgrade the flush system for maximum power.

So, are you ready to take control of your bathroom’s flushing power? Let’s dive in!

Key Takeaways

  • Regularly inspect and replace the flush valve or flapper for optimal performance
  • Troubleshoot and fix flushing problems before calling a plumber
  • Maintain the appropriate water level in the tank
  • Adjust the fill valve to increase water level and flush power

Understanding the Flush Mechanism

To understand the flush mechanism, it’s important to know how water flows in the toilet tank. When the handle is pressed, it lifts the flush valve, allowing water to flow from the tank into the bowl.

The flush valve is a crucial component that controls the amount and force of water released during a flush. Over time, the flush valve or flapper may wear out and need replacement. A faulty flush valve or flapper can cause weak or incomplete flushes, leading to clogs and other plumbing issues.

It is recommended to regularly inspect and replace the flush valve or flapper to maintain optimal flushing performance. By ensuring a properly functioning flush valve, you can ensure a stronger and more efficient flush for your toilet.

Identifying Common Flushing Issues

One common issue with toilets is when they don’t flush properly. If you find yourself facing this problem, there are several troubleshooting solutions and DIY fixes that you can try before calling a plumber.

Firstly, check the water level in the tank to ensure it is at the appropriate height. If it’s too low, adjust the fill valve accordingly. Additionally, inspect the flapper to ensure it is sealing properly and replace it if necessary.

Another possible cause for weak flushes is a clogged toilet drain. Use a plunger or a toilet auger to clear any obstructions.

By following these troubleshooting steps, you can often resolve the issue and improve the flushing performance of your toilet.

Transitioning into the subsequent section on cleaning and maintaining the toilet tank, it’s important to note that regular maintenance plays a crucial role in preventing flushing problems.

Cleaning and Maintaining the Toilet Tank

Check if the water level in your tank is at the appropriate height and adjust the fill valve if needed. Maintaining the toilet tank is crucial for optimal toilet bowl hygiene and ensuring a strong flush. One common issue in the tank is the build-up of mineral deposits, which can affect the flush performance. To remove these deposits, you can use a mixture of vinegar and water. Simply pour the solution into the tank and let it sit for a few hours. Then, scrub the tank gently with a toilet brush and flush several times to rinse it thoroughly. Regularly cleaning and maintaining the tank will not only improve the flush strength but also prevent any unpleasant odors and keep your toilet clean and hygienic.

Cleaning Solution Ingredients Instructions
Vinegar and Water – 1 part vinegar
– 2 parts water
1. Mix the vinegar and water in a container.
2. Pour the solution into the toilet tank.
3. Let it sit for a few hours.
4. Scrub the tank gently with a toilet brush.
5. Flush several times to rinse the tank thoroughly.

Adjusting the Water Level and Flush Power

You can easily adjust the water level and increase the power of your flush by adjusting the fill valve in your toilet tank. By doing this, you can improve the overall performance of your toilet and ensure a stronger flush.

One way to increase water pressure is by using a dual flush system. This system allows you to choose between a full flush and a half flush, depending on your needs. The full flush uses more water and provides a stronger flush, while the half flush conserves water for liquid waste. By utilizing a dual flush system, you can have the option to adjust the water pressure and optimize the flushing power of your toilet.

Upgrading the flush system is another effective way to improve the flush strength and overall performance of your toilet. Transitioning into the next section, let’s explore the different options available for upgrading the flush system.

Upgrading the Flush System

When upgrading the flush system, it’s important to consider the different options available to improve the overall performance of your toilet.

One option to consider is increasing water pressure. This can be done by adjusting the water supply valve or installing a pressure-assisted flush system. Increasing water pressure can help create a stronger flush, ensuring that waste is effectively removed from the bowl.

Another option to consider is installing a dual flush system. This allows you to choose between a full flush for solid waste and a partial flush for liquid waste. By using less water for liquid waste, you can conserve water and reduce your water bill. Dual flush systems are easy to install and can be a cost-effective way to improve the flushing power of your toilet.

Both of these options can help improve the overall performance of your toilet and ensure a stronger flush. It’s always a good idea to consult with a professional plumber to determine the best option for your specific needs.


So there you have it, folks! After going through the steps of understanding the flush mechanism, identifying common flushing issues, cleaning and maintaining the toilet tank, and adjusting the water level and flush power, it’s time to take your toilet to the next level.

Upgrade the flush system and witness the power of a toilet flush like never before! Say goodbye to those weak, pitiful flushes and hello to a forceful, mighty flush that will leave no trace behind.

It’s time to unleash the true power of your toilet!

Mateo’s flair for writing is matched only by his keen eye for design. As an interior designer turned writer, Mateo brings a unique perspective. He blends aesthetics with functionality in every piece he pens, providing readers with beautifully crafted content that’s also supremely useful. Mateo loves exploring the latest bathroom tech trends and is our expert on smart toilets. When he’s not writing or designing, Mateo can be found sketching ideas for his next big project at local coffee shops.

Continue Reading

FAQ - Advanced Bathroom Queries

What Can I Put in My Toilet to Keep It From Clogging




An image of a diverse array of everyday objects, including tissues, wipes, paper towels, feminine products, and excessive toilet paper, carefully arranged next to a toilet bowl

So you’ve been facing the frustrating issue of toilet clogs, huh? Trust me, I’ve been there too.

But fear not, because I’ve got the solution you’ve been searching for. In this article, I’ll reveal the secrets to keeping your toilet free from those dreaded blockages.

We’ll explore the importance of regular maintenance, natural DIY remedies, effective chemical products, and best practices for flushing.

No more plungers and headaches – it’s time to take control of your toilet and wave goodbye to clogs!

Key Takeaways

  • Regular maintenance and DIY techniques are important to prevent clogs and blockages in toilets.
  • Natural DIY solutions such as vinegar and baking soda, hot water and dish soap, and Epsom salt can help keep toilets from clogging.
  • Chemical products like toilet bowl cleaners and drain cleaners can be used for prevention, but should be used sparingly and with caution.
  • Following best practices for flushing, such as only flushing toilet paper and human waste, can help avoid plumbing problems.

Importance of Regular Maintenance

Regular maintenance is important to prevent clogs in your toilet. By performing regular maintenance on your toilet, you can ensure that it functions properly and avoid any potential clogs or blockages.

The frequency of maintenance will depend on the usage of your toilet. For a household with multiple occupants, it is recommended to perform maintenance at least once every three months. However, if you notice any signs of a potential clog, such as slow draining or water backup, it is important to address it immediately.

There are several DIY maintenance techniques that you can utilize to prevent clogs. These include using a plunger to remove any minor blockages, regularly cleaning the toilet bowl and drain pipes, and avoiding flushing items such as wipes, paper towels, or feminine hygiene products that can cause clogs.

Natural DIY Solutions

Instead of using regular store-bought products, you can try a natural DIY solution to prevent your toilet from clogging. There are several eco-friendly alternatives using common household items that can effectively keep your toilet running smoothly. Here is a table showcasing some of these solutions:

Natural DIY Solution Household Item Usage
Vinegar and Baking Soda Vinegar Pour 1 cup of vinegar followed by 1 cup of baking soda into the toilet bowl. Let it sit for 10 minutes and then flush.
Hot Water and Dish Soap Dish Soap Add a few drops of dish soap to a bucket of hot water. Pour the mixture into the toilet and let it sit for 15 minutes before flushing.
Epsom Salt Epsom Salt Add 1 cup of Epsom salt to the toilet bowl. Let it sit for 30 minutes and then flush.
Plunger Plunger Use a plunger to dislodge any clogs by creating suction and pressure.

These natural DIY solutions are not only effective in preventing toilet clogs but also environmentally friendly alternatives to chemical-based products. By using household items, you can keep your toilet clog-free while reducing your carbon footprint.

Chemical Products for Prevention

Using chemical products can be an effective way to prevent clogs in your toilet. Toilet bowl cleaners and drain cleaners are specifically designed to break down and dissolve any build-up or debris that may be causing the clog. These products contain strong chemicals that can effectively remove stubborn stains, kill bacteria, and eliminate foul odors.

When choosing a toilet bowl cleaner or drain cleaner, make sure to read the instructions carefully and choose a product that is compatible with your plumbing system. It is important to use these products sparingly and only when necessary, as excessive use can lead to damage to your pipes or septic system. Additionally, always follow the instructions on the label and take necessary safety precautions, such as wearing gloves and ensuring proper ventilation.

By using these chemical products responsibly, you can help prevent clogs and maintain a clean and functioning toilet.

To ensure the best practices for flushing, it is important to follow a few simple guidelines.

Best Practices for Flushing

To ensure proper flushing, you should remember to only flush toilet paper and human waste down the toilet. This is the best practice for unclogging and avoiding common mistakes that can lead to plumbing problems.

Flushing anything other than toilet paper and waste can result in clogs and blockages in your pipes. Items like hygiene products, paper towels, and even baby wipes should never be flushed as they do not break down like toilet paper does.

Additionally, pouring grease or oil down the toilet can also lead to clogs as it solidifies and sticks to the pipes.

Professional Plumbing Services

Hiring a professional plumber can save you time and ensure that your plumbing issues are properly addressed. Here are four reasons why you should consider hiring a plumber:

  1. Expertise: Plumbers undergo extensive training and have the knowledge and skills necessary to tackle any plumbing problem. They can quickly identify the root cause of the issue and provide effective solutions.

  2. Quality Workmanship: Professional plumbers have access to the latest tools and equipment, allowing them to deliver high-quality work. They can fix your plumbing problems correctly the first time, saving you from future headaches.

  3. Emergency Plumbing Services: Plumbing emergencies can happen at any time, day or night. Hiring a professional plumber means having access to emergency services, ensuring that your plumbing issues are promptly addressed, preventing further damage to your home.

  4. Peace of Mind: By hiring a plumber, you can have peace of mind knowing that your plumbing system is in capable hands. They will handle all the necessary repairs and maintenance, allowing you to focus on other important aspects of your life.

Frequently Asked Questions

How Often Should I Schedule Professional Plumbing Services for My Toilet to Prevent Clogging?

I schedule professional plumbing services for my toilet every year to prevent clogging. It’s important to maintain regular maintenance to avoid issues. Additionally, I use home remedies like baking soda and vinegar to unclog without a plunger.

Are There Any Natural DIY Solutions That Can Help Unclog a Severely Clogged Toilet?

To unclog a severely clogged toilet, there are natural DIY solutions you can try. Some options include using a plunger, a mixture of baking soda and vinegar, or a toilet auger.

Can Using Chemical Products for Prevention Damage the Plumbing System in the Long Run?

Using chemical products to prevent toilet clogs has pros and cons. While they may temporarily unclog the toilet, they can also damage the plumbing system in the long run. Maintaining a healthy plumbing system without chemicals can be achieved through regular maintenance and proper usage.

What Are Some Common Mistakes People Make When Flushing That Can Lead to Toilet Clogs?

When it comes to flushing, there are some common mistakes we make that can lead to nasty toilet clogs. But fear not! I’ll share tips on how to prevent them and keep your toilet flowing smoothly.

Is It Necessary to Hire a Professional Plumber if I Am Experiencing Frequent Toilet Clogs?

Hiring a professional plumber may not always be necessary for frequent toilet clogs. First, try using a plunger to clear the blockage. If that doesn’t work, troubleshoot and fix minor clogs at home with a toilet auger or a drain snake.


In conclusion, regular maintenance and proactive measures are key to preventing toilet clogs. By using natural DIY solutions such as a mixture of baking soda and vinegar or opting for chemical products specifically designed for prevention, you can ensure the smooth functioning of your toilet.

Remember to follow best practices for flushing, avoiding excessive toilet paper or foreign objects. If all else fails, don’t hesitate to seek professional plumbing services.

For instance, my neighbor, Sarah, had been experiencing frequent toilet clogs until she started using a natural enzyme-based cleaner, which significantly reduced the occurrence of clogs.

Continue Reading

FAQ - Advanced Bathroom Queries

What Causes Black Ring in Toilet Bowl




An image showcasing a pristine white toilet bowl with a distinct, perfectly circular, and inky black ring encircling the waterline

I can’t stand it when I see that dreaded black ring in my toilet bowl. It’s like a never-ending battle to keep my bathroom clean.

But have you ever wondered what causes that pesky black ring? Well, let me tell you, there are a few common culprits.

Mineral deposits and hard water buildup can leave behind unsightly stains. Mold and mildew love to thrive in the moist environment of a toilet bowl. And don’t forget about bacterial growth and biofilm formation.

In this article, we’ll dive deep into the causes and potential health risks of those black rings. So, buckle up and get ready to tackle this toilet bowl mystery head-on.

Key Takeaways

  • Growth of mold and mildew is one of the main causes of black rings in toilet bowls.
  • Mineral deposits and hard water buildup can also contribute to the formation of black rings.
  • Lack of regular cleaning and maintenance can lead to the development of black rings in toilet bowls.
  • Insufficient bathroom ventilation can create a conducive environment for mold, mildew, and bacterial growth, resulting in black rings.

Common Causes of Black Rings in Toilet Bowls

One of the most common causes of black rings in toilet bowls is the growth of mold and mildew. These unsightly black rings can be quite stubborn to remove, but there are effective cleaning methods that can help tackle the problem.

First, it’s important to wear gloves and use a toilet bowl cleaner specifically designed to remove mold and mildew. Scrub the affected area with a toilet brush, paying special attention to the edges and under the rim. For stubborn stains, you may need to let the cleaner sit for a while before scrubbing.

To prevent the formation of black rings, make sure to regularly clean your toilet bowl and keep the bathroom well-ventilated to discourage mold and mildew growth.

Transitioning to the next section, another common cause of black rings in toilet bowls is mineral deposits and hard water buildup.

Mineral Deposits and Hard Water Buildup

Mineral deposits and hard water buildup can create a dark circular stain in the toilet. These stains not only make the toilet bowl look unclean, but they can also be difficult to remove.

To maintain toilet bowl cleanliness, it is important to regularly clean and remove these stains. There are various cleaning products available in the market that are specifically designed to tackle mineral deposits and hard water buildup. These products contain powerful ingredients that can effectively break down and remove the stains, leaving your toilet bowl sparkling clean.

It’s essential to follow the instructions on the cleaning products and use them as directed to achieve the best results. Taking proper care of your toilet bowl will not only keep it clean but also prevent the growth of mold and mildew, which we will discuss in the next section.

Mold and Mildew Growth in the Toilet Bowl

Regular cleaning and proper maintenance can help prevent the growth of mold and mildew in the toilet. Mold and mildew thrive in moist and dark environments, making the toilet bowl an ideal breeding ground. To avoid unsightly toilet bowl stains caused by these microorganisms, it is important to incorporate effective cleaning techniques.

Firstly, it is crucial to regularly clean the toilet bowl using a toilet brush and a disinfectant cleaner. Scrubbing the bowl thoroughly will remove any existing mold and mildew and prevent their growth. Additionally, it is recommended to flush the toilet after each use to reduce moisture accumulation.

Furthermore, proper ventilation in the bathroom is essential to prevent mold and mildew growth. Ensure that the bathroom is well-ventilated by opening windows or using a fan to circulate air and reduce humidity.

Lastly, consider using a mold and mildew inhibitor product specifically designed for toilets. These products can help prevent the growth of mold and mildew between cleanings.

Bacterial Growth and Biofilm Formation

To prevent bacterial growth and biofilm formation in your toilet, it’s important to regularly clean and disinfect all surfaces, including the rim and under the seat.

Bacterial contamination in the toilet can lead to unpleasant odors and potential health risks. The warm and moist environment of the toilet bowl provides the perfect breeding ground for bacteria to thrive.

Biofilm, a slimy layer formed by bacteria, can accumulate on the surfaces over time, making it even harder to remove.

To effectively clean your toilet and eliminate bacterial contamination, start by using a toilet brush and a disinfectant cleaner. Scrub all surfaces, paying special attention to the rim and under the seat.

After cleaning, flush the toilet to remove any residue.

Regular cleaning using these methods will help keep your toilet clean, fresh, and free from harmful bacteria.

Possible Health Risks Associated With Black Rings in Toilet Bowls

The presence of dark circles in the toilet can pose potential health risks, so it’s important to address this issue promptly.

Black rings in toilet bowls are not only unsightly, but they can also have negative effects on our health. These dark circles are often caused by the buildup of bacteria and other microorganisms, which thrive in the moist and warm environment of the toilet bowl.

When left uncleaned, these bacteria can multiply and potentially lead to infections or illnesses.

To prevent these health risks, it is crucial to regularly clean and disinfect the toilet bowl using appropriate cleaning methods. Scrubbing the bowl with a toilet brush and using disinfectant cleaners can help eliminate the bacteria and maintain a clean and hygienic toilet.

Frequently Asked Questions

How Can I Prevent the Formation of Black Rings in My Toilet Bowl?

To prevent black rings in my toilet bowl, I use effective cleaning methods. Regular toilet bowl cleaning, including scrubbing with a toilet brush and using a cleaning solution, helps keep the bowl clean and free from black rings.

Can Black Rings in the Toilet Bowl Be Harmful to My Health?

Black rings in the toilet bowl may not be harmful to health, but they can be caused by a buildup of bacteria and mold. Regular cleaning is important to prevent any potential health risks.

Are There Any Home Remedies to Remove Black Rings From the Toilet Bowl?

There are several effective home remedies for removing black rings from the toilet bowl. Natural cleaners, such as vinegar and baking soda, can be used to scrub away these stubborn stains.

Can Using Certain Cleaning Products Contribute to the Formation of Black Rings?

Using certain cleaning products can contribute to the formation of black rings in the toilet bowl. It is important to be mindful of the chemicals and ingredients in these products. There are alternative cleaning methods and solutions available to prevent black rings.

Is It Possible for Black Rings in the Toilet Bowl to Come Back Even After Cleaning Them?

Yes, black rings can reappear in the toilet bowl even after cleaning. This can be due to factors like mineral deposits, mold growth, or incomplete cleaning. Regular deep cleaning and using effective cleaning methods can help prevent their recurrence.


In conclusion, black rings in toilet bowls can be caused by mineral deposits, mold and mildew growth, and bacterial growth.

These unsightly rings not only affect the appearance of your bathroom, but they can also pose possible health risks.

It is important to regularly clean and maintain your toilet to prevent these issues. By being proactive and taking the necessary steps, you can ensure a clean and healthy bathroom environment.

So don’t let those black rings linger, take action and keep your toilet bowl sparkling clean!

Continue Reading

FAQ - Advanced Bathroom Queries

What Causes a Running Toilet




An image showcasing a disassembled toilet with a faulty flapper valve, water overflowing from the tank, a clogged float mechanism, and a leaking fill valve, illustrating the diverse causes of a running toilet

Have you ever heard the saying, ‘A running toilet is like money going down the drain’? Well, let me tell you, it’s not just a saying – it’s a real plumbing issue that can cost you both water and money.

In this article, I will delve into the common causes of a running toilet, from a faulty flapper valve to water pressure problems.

So, buckle up and get ready to dive into the world of toilet troubles.

Key Takeaways

  • Running toilet can be caused by a clogged drain or toilet bowl cracks.
  • A faulty flapper valve, which controls the flow of water into the bowl, can cause continuous water leakage.
  • A malfunctioning fill valve, which controls the flow of water into the tank after each flush, can lead to a running toilet.
  • Water pressure problems, such as low water pressure from clogged pipes or a faulty pressure regulator, can also affect the functioning of a toilet.

Common Plumbing Issues

One of the most common plumbing issues is a running toilet. A running toilet occurs when water continuously flows into the toilet bowl, even when it is not being used.

There are several possible causes for this problem. One cause could be a clogged drain. When the drain is clogged, water cannot flow out of the toilet properly, causing it to continuously refill.

Another possible cause is toilet bowl cracks. Cracks in the toilet bowl can lead to water leakage, which can trigger the constant filling of the tank.

It is important to address these issues promptly to prevent water waste and potential damage to your plumbing system.

Faulty Flapper Valve

A faulty flapper valve is often the culprit for a toilet that won’t stop running. The flapper valve is a rubber seal that sits at the bottom of the toilet tank and controls the flow of water into the bowl.

When the toilet is flushed, the flapper valve lifts, allowing water to rush into the bowl. Once the tank is empty, the flapper valve should close tightly, preventing any more water from entering the bowl. However, if the flapper valve is worn out or damaged, it may not create a proper seal, causing water to continuously leak into the bowl.

This constant flow of water not only leads to a noisy toilet but also results in significant water wastage. To resolve this issue, a simple toilet repair involves replacing the faulty flapper valve with a new one, ensuring a proper seal and preventing water wastage.

Malfunctioning Fill Valve

To fix the issue of a malfunctioning fill valve, you should replace it with a new one to ensure proper water flow and prevent any further problems.

The fill valve is an essential component of a toilet’s flushing system. It is responsible for controlling the flow of water into the tank after each flush. When the fill valve malfunctions, it can lead to a running toilet, where water continuously flows into the tank.

Troubleshooting a running toilet starts with identifying the faulty fill valve. Signs of a malfunctioning fill valve include a constantly running toilet, fluctuating water levels, or a slow fill rate.

Replacing the fill valve involves shutting off the water supply, disconnecting the old valve, and installing a new one according to the manufacturer’s instructions.

Regular maintenance and prompt fill valve replacement will help keep your toilet functioning properly and prevent water wastage.

Water Pressure Problems

Water pressure problems can be caused by a variety of factors, such as clogged pipes or a faulty pressure regulator.

Low water pressure is often a result of blockages in the pipes, such as mineral deposits or debris. This restricts the flow of water and can lead to weak or insufficient pressure.

High water pressure, on the other hand, can be caused by a malfunctioning pressure regulator. When the regulator fails to regulate the pressure, it can result in excessive force in the pipes, leading to bursts or leaks.

Both low and high water pressure can have negative effects on the performance of plumbing fixtures, including toilets.

Speaking of toilets, one common issue that can arise from water pressure problems is a leaky toilet tank.

Leaky Toilet Tank

Is your toilet tank leaking due to water pressure problems? If so, it’s important to address the issue promptly to prevent further damage and potential water waste. Here are some steps you can take to maintain and replace your toilet tank:

  • Regular maintenance:

  • Check for cracks or leaks in the tank and fix them immediately.

  • Inspect the flush valve and flapper for any signs of wear and tear.

  • Toilet tank replacement:

  • Turn off the water supply to the toilet and flush to drain the tank.

  • Disconnect the supply line and remove any remaining water.

  • Unscrew the bolts attaching the tank to the bowl and carefully lift off the tank.

  • Install the new tank and reconnect the supply line.

  • Test for leaks and make necessary adjustments.

Frequently Asked Questions

How Can I Fix a Running Toilet That Is Caused by a Faulty Flapper Valve?

To fix a running toilet caused by a faulty flapper valve, I would start by turning off the water supply. Then, I’d remove the old flapper and replace it with a new one. This is a common problem with toilets and can be easily fixed.

What Are the Signs of a Malfunctioning Fill Valve in a Running Toilet?

When a toilet keeps running, it may be due to a malfunctioning fill valve. To troubleshoot water pressure, check for signs like inconsistent flushing or continuous water flow.

How Can I Troubleshoot Water Pressure Problems That Are Causing My Toilet to Run Continuously?

To troubleshoot water pressure problems causing a continuously running toilet, start by checking the water supply valve’s position. Next, inspect the fill valve for any clogs or malfunctions. Common toilet problems like these can often be resolved with these simple steps.

Are There Any Quick Fixes for a Leaky Toilet Tank That Is Causing It to Run?

There are a few quick DIY solutions to fix a leaky toilet tank that is causing it to run. Common causes of toilet leaks include worn-out flapper valves, faulty fill valves, or a loose toilet handle.

Can a Running Toilet Lead to Higher Water Bills, and if So, How Can I Prevent This?

A running toilet can lead to higher water bills and negatively impact the environment. To reduce water usage in my home, I can prevent this by fixing any leaks promptly and ensuring the toilet is properly maintained.


As I wrap up this investigation into the mysterious case of the running toilet, a chilling realization dawns on me.

It is not just a simple plumbing issue, but a hidden menace lurking within our homes. The faulty flapper valve and malfunctioning fill valve are merely symptoms of a much larger problem.

The water pressure, seemingly innocent, holds the key to uncovering the truth. And let us not forget the leaky toilet tank, silently wasting water, as if mocking our ignorance.

The suspense is palpable as we delve deeper into the darkness of this enigma.

Continue Reading